How Kava Works in the Brain?

Acknowledgement goes our to infraredez post on Kava Forums about how kava works on the brain. "Here is his original post"

Below is what he had to say in his findings.

The following is the simplest explanation for how kava works in the brain. It will show: how does kava work for anxiety, how does kava work for insomnia, how does kava help pain, how does kava help with muscle relaxation, how does kava work in the brain and what kava does to the body to give its effect.

This is by no means exhaustive or complete, and there is conflicting evidence on some points. That being said, here is the most basic explanation including all proposed theories (which all are likely to play some role in kava's mechanism of action).

First, an overview of psychopharmacology.

Neurons are cells (found in our brain, spinal cord, and other nerves that sense pain, cause muscles to move, etc). Neurons do what they do because of chemical signals and electrical signals. There are four main parts to a neuron but for these purposes we will think of them as having two sides. One side receives information and one transmits information. In two neurons (neurons are found in 'chains') there is a gap where neurons communicate with each other. Neurotransmitters from one neuron send out these neurotransmitters to the other neuron which has receptors on the surface. Once they are bind to the surface of the receiving neuron in receptors, they are either dealt with in several ways or something re-uptakes them back to the original cell. Naturally, our bodies re-uptake all sorts of transmitters in order to recycle the neurotransmitters and to make sure there isn't too much action on the destination cell. It's basically a constant cycle of the first cell taking back what it gave to the 2nd cell in varying degrees.

These cells also have channels (normal, non neural cells too) that either allow things in or out of cells based on various things. Some channels pump things out, some accept cells if they meet a certain criteria. For this, we will just look at the channels that allow substances 'in'. These can allow things 'in' based on their electrical charge or if there’s what’s called a ligand (something that binds to a receptor). For our purposes we will look at the first two.

Voltage-gated channels

These are channels that are described above as allowing substance in based on their electrical charge (sodium has a +1 and calcium has a +2 charge). When a receiving neuron gets a substance that has the right charge, the cells will respond.

By inhibiting these sodium and calcium channels, it will make it harder for these neurons to become “excited”. When these channels are blocked as is the case with kava, there would be a relaxing effect and in the case of our mouth and stomach, it will numb those membranes (it also is what controls epilepsy among other things). Sodium channel blockers are sometimes used as local anesthetics, antiarrhythmic (stopping abnormal rhythms of the heart) meds, and some anticonvulsants (antiepileptic drugs).

By blocking sodium channels, certain anticonvulsants can help reduce the amount of glutamate which is an excitatory neurotransmitter, again showing a possible mechanism of action of kava's calming effects.

These anticonvulsants help to suppress neurons from firing rapidly (which happens during seizures) but also can show why they are used as mood stabilizers.

Anticonvulsants are also commonly used to treat bipolar disorder because many seem to act as mood stabilizers, again showing a possible mechanism of kava's effects. In addition, they also are being used to treat neuropathic pain (eg. diabetic nerve pain, fibromyalgia pain) which many have used kava with great success.

Another interesting note is that it's been hypothesized that the analgesic effect of some antidepressants is due to sodium channel blockade which can help explain [part of] the analgesic effect of kava []​

Calcium channel blockers are commonly used to treat people with high blood pressure (hypertension) but do so less potently than beta-blockers which significantly decrease the heart's responsiveness to various signals from the sympathetic nervous system, therefore making them more "reversible" and having not as much of a "blanket effect" which shows why we aren't all collapsing of low BP.

The vast majority of calcium channels are also responsible for decreasing what's called "E-C Coupling" (which is the process of converting an electrical signal to a mechanical reaction) of the smooth, skeletal and cardiac muscle. This can explain the effect on the smooth muscle (eg. bowel movements that seem to be stimulated by kava) as well as the skeletal muscle relaxant effect that we see.

There are different classes of muscle relaxants, one of which is called "Neuromuscular blockers" which block the transmission of a nerve impulse at the motor end plate (the junction of the nerve to the muscle) as well as "Spasmolytics" which either reduce the level of excitation or enhance the inhibition of the signal.

Usually, a muscle contraction involves a nerve signal at this place which then causes a large influx of calcium ions which causes the neuron to release acetylcholine which then stimulates a contraction. If calcium is blocked from rushing into the neuron, then a muscle contraction can be blocked.

Dr. Mathias Schmidt has actually recently brought this up in a recent conversation about the diuretic effect of kava: Diuretic effects [...] maybe related to the spasmolytic effects? ​


GABA is a prominent neurotransmitter that basically is the major transmitter that inhibits activity between neurons, thereby calming them down which results in sedation, loss of “muscle tone” (the unconscious contraction that our muscles are in even under normal circumstances), etc. There are two main subtypes of GABA that have different effects (GABA-a and GABA-b). Some examples of things (ligands) that bind to GABA receptors are benzodiazepines, alcohol, valerian, barbituates and some muscle relaxants like carisoprodol (Soma). These ligands can either “turn on” or “turn off” the receptor.

GABA-a is what benzodiazepines mainly target and is more targeted towards calming the brain whereas GABA-b is more of a muscle relaxant although both of them have that property. Kava seems to modulate the GABA system, possibly through creating more GABA receptors (and thus, allowing more ligands places to bind and have an effect) or to decrease the amount of effort that it takes for ligands to bind to GABA receptors. Our bodies naturally create substances that bind to GABA receptors.

Norepinephrine (INN)

Norepinephrine, is basically adrenaline, it is required for attention, fight-or-flight situations, mood, arousal etc. When your body releases this, there’s always some left over that isn’t reabsorbed (re-uptake) so it’s just in between the two cells (and is normally re-uptaken) but if the re-uptake is blocked, those cells are “floating” in between the cells and free to bind to the receptors and exert an effect.

MAOIs and MAOs

"MAO"- MonoAmine Oxidase, of which there are two subtypes (A and B), are enzymes that break down some neurotransmitters, specifically "monoamines". These monoamines are neurotransmitters that contain one amino group in their chemical structure and are very small molecules derived from amino acids (thus why they contain an amino group in their molecule).

When MAOs are inhibited (eg. an MAO-I), this causes a decrease in the amount of these neurotransmitters that can be broken down. In essence, this causes an increase in the amount of dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and phenethylamine (amongst others). Both subtypes (A and B) break down dopamine equally. The sub-type B breaks down phenethylamine (which is a substance that causes the release of dopamine) whereas subtype A doesn't.

This means more dopamine (and norepinephrine too I think) is in effect present in the brain if subtype B is inhibited.

Older (irreversible) MAOIs are what you might have heard about having pretty significant dietary concerns and significant side effect profiles. Kava is a very weak, and reversible MAOI.

See below for some further information on this.

Some Further Explanations on The Above Information:

Regarding MAOI and Kava: From "Inhibition of platelet MAO-B by kava pyrone-enriched extract from Piper methysticum Forster (kava-kava)": "Kava-kava extract was found to be a reversible inhibitor of MAO-B in intact platelets (IC50 24 microM) and disrupted platelet homogenates (IC50 1.2 microM). Structural differences of kava pyrones resulted in a different potency of MAO-B inhibition. The order of potency was desmethoxyyangonin > (+/-)-methysticin > yangonin > (+/-)-dihydromethysticin > (+/-)- dihydrokavain > (+/-)-kavain. The two most potent kava pyrones, desmethoxyyangonin and (+/-)-methysticin displayed a competetive inhibition pattern with mean Ki 0.28 microM and 1.14 microM respectively. The inhibition of MAO-B by kava pyrone-enriched extracts might be an important mechanism for their psychotropic activity." [[]

This was done in vitro (in a test tube or anywhere outside of a living organism), and the MAO-B inhibition was shown to be reversible which is much safer than irreversible MAOIs. Now, it's important to see how strongly kava acted as an MAOI...

To do this, it's very important that we take into account the "affinity" of the ligand. Affinity is a word that is used to describe how strongly a ligand binds to a particular receptor protein and is measured in terms of IC50 which is the "concentration of ligand at which half of the receptor binding sites are occupied" [Source] Now, lower IC50 values will translate to higher affinity. In this case, it means more inhibition of MAOI-B.

"Kava-kava extract was found to be a reversible inhibitor of MAO-B in intact platelets (IC50 24 microM) and disrupted platelet homogenates (IC50 1.2 microM)"

Remember that the lower the number, the "stronger" the effect of MAO-B inhibition.

Take a prescription MAOI-B, for example, Rasagiline (Azilect) which shows an IC50 of 4.4 nanoM in humans (where "M" is "Molar") []

We have the IC50 value of kava (taking the lower of the two, just for illustration purposes) as 1.2 microM which translates to 1200 nanoM.

We can see the drastic difference with Rasagiline being extremely more potent in its antagonism/inhibition of MAOI-B and showing that while kavalactones possibly have some affinity for MAOI-B, it is not nearly close to the potency seen in prescription MAOIs.

Kava and "NMDA" "Kava also interferes with norepinephrine reuptake and has a high binding affinity with -aminobutyric acid (GABA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors." [] []

Studies showing both activities: Agonist [;jsessionid=4BFA12C6F3DFA4260FF18AB17C0E133A]

Antagonist []

The top citation only shows an affinity, not the role of the ligand. Again, conflicting evidence (like GABA), but I'd venture to guess that kava's interaction with NMDA is something worth researching. I would think it would act as an antagonist, that's just my guess.

"Reverse Tolerance" (sensitization)

As far as what [might] cause the reverse tolerance that some people experience with Kava...

If kava's MOA is indeed through the modulation of GABA-a receptors, specifically through positive allosteric modulators at receptor sites causing upregulation (although not exclusively) than it would seem logical to assume that repeated administration will cause an increasing intensity of effect (at least in the GABAergic sense) wherein due to upregulation, there is an increase in the amount of GABA receptors on the cellular surface and therefore, the active ligands in kavalactones are able to bind to (and therefore exert their effect) to a greater degree.

During downregulation (tolerance) of μ-opioid agonists [for example], part of the physioslogical change involves receptor phosphorylation due to G protein-coupled cellular kinases which significantly impedes that receptor's signaling and effectively causes less effective binding of the associated ligands. Then, there is of course the downregulation of actual receptor sites which both lead to tolerance, dependence and a decrease in "effect". It's possible that some similar mechanism is also responsible, albeit in a different way since we're talking about the reverse of the above example.

There is also a lot of research that shows that proteins (Delta FosB and RGS9-2, a regulator of G protein signaling) are involved with tolerance and addiction. This protein Delta FosB, has been theorized to activate genes that increase the person's sensitivity to a given drug. Delta FosB slowly accumulates in the body and remains active far longer than CREB (a protein involved with transcription). This then causes a hypersensitivity and is a leading area of research in drug addiction. There has even been some evidence that FosB can cause actual structural changes in the brain (nucleus accumbens I think) I can't remember much about that part.

Here are some of the bookmarks I found regarding this (in no particular order) [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] []

Comments (1):

Edward on

Great article. Informative, detailed and overall great read. Thank you.

Leave a comment:

Please note, comments must be approved before they are published

Other articles:

How commercial kava farming is done in Fiji – An insight to Fiji's largest kava plantation.

In this post we will talk about how kava is farmed in Fiji on a commercial scale. The information is based on the first-hand experience I had staying over at our Gourmet Savusavu Waka farmer’s kava plantation in Savusavu. They have the largest kava plantation in Fiji. I stayed over for three days at their main farm house (out of 7 farmhouses) where there is no electricity supply. Their water supply comes from a stream up on the hill side of the valley where his farm is based. There is also no communication (cell) network. Sadly I was not able to take as many photos as I could because my cell phone kept getting to low battery and I had to ration power supply from my power bank for the 3 days. But I did manage to get some great shots and videos to put on this post.

Let me tell you a bit about our farmer. He is a 24 year old who has taken most control of the plantation which his dad started. His dad had started the plantation alone is 1980’s with 4 acres of land which was given to him by his father. In the early 90’s he saw that the demand for kava was growing at a level to which he could not sustain, so he decided to take out a loan to hire workers and expand his plantation. After the loan got approved he went ahead to lease another 73 acres of land to plant kava on. At this rate he kept expanding the plantation because demand kept increasing and now he has a total of 243 acres of leased land, most of which has kava planted in them. We cannot release details of our farmer because of competitive reasons, but they are very well known in Savusavu. The family is so generous that they have been paying expenses for buildings for villages nearby and have also donated fields of kava to their church group. Our farmer has about 30 employees working for them on rotational bases that come from nearby villages. There are 3 main foremen who look after the farm aside from our farmer. They are paid double of what the normal workers are paid and also get the benefit of receiving free kasa cuttings (kava nodes) to go and plant back at their farms on days off. Some of the workers also get land allocations to plant/harvest their own kava on our farmers land. Occasionally, youth groups from various locations in Fiji come by to work in the farm in return of kasa cuttings. Below is picture of a kasa cutting, the cuttings used to grow kava.

Getting back to the farming now. A typical day at the plantation starts at 5am by which time everyone is awake and ready to go into the farm. Everyone gathers for a prayer session and they are off to the farm for the morning session. Below is a picture of the briefing given by our farmer wearing a light grey shirt to one set of workers. They have 2 vehicles used to transport 2 set of workers in and out of the plantation given its huge size. It takes about 1 hour to walk from 1 end of the farm to the other up till where kava has been planted. By vehicle it takes about 15 minutes so it saves time. The road going in and out is pretty rugged and worse when it rains. So the farmer uses land cruisers to get the job done.

The morning session usually involves cleaning the fields. Our farmer has his plantation sectioned out and each section as a name eg Siberia, Kazakhstan, PNG, USA etc. They use country names to refer to each section which needs to be worked on.  Below is a video of 1 section and another farm house.

Cleaning for each section takes place once every month until the kava plant is tall enough to win competing for sunlight with other shrubs. If the plant does not get sufficient sunlight it will have a hard time growing into a fully matured plant. Below is a picture of the cleaning which occurred at one section.

The morning cleaning session usually takes around an hour or two before all the workers come back to the farm house for their breakfast. Breakfast is usually buns/bread made at the farm house the previous night with butter, jam and tea. Below is a picture of the custom built oven at the farmhouse in which the baking is done. I found it to be a very interesting design.

By 9am everyone is ready to head back to the farm. This session usually rotates around harvesting and planting kava. You would think that to run such a large operation, you would need to harvest a lot of kava plants, but it only takes 10 lovo pits to break even for the entire week. A lovo pit is a bunch of kava plants grouped together. Out of the 10 lovo pits comes about 700 kasa cuttings which are replanted to make about 35 lovo pits. In each lovo pit about 16 to 18 kasa cuttings are planted out of which 8 to 10 survive till harvest. This is the reason why each lovo pit yields a lot of kava. On a typical day, about 15 to 20 lovo pits are harvested. Below is a video of the yield which comes from 1 lovo pit.


That harvest is from a 3 year old plant. Below is a picture of how massive this plant grows to in the farm. The two guys are about 1.7m in height and they are standing on thick tree log which is giving them about 50cm additional height from the ground where the kava plants base is. I would say the plant is about 3 meters in height and its just 3 years old. When I asked my farmer about the age of the plant he was quite upfront and said its just 3 years old and many farmers all over Fiji and maybe in some other countries may show plants as such and claim that the kava is 10-12 years old when really they are not.

By 1pm all the workers have wrapped up with the work to be done and bring back the harvest loaded on the land cruisers back to the farm house. Now its lunch time and during my 3 days stay there, the lunch was boiled cassava (tapioca), boiled bele (Slippery cabbage) in coconut milk and some form of meat usually canned mackerel. The farm house is occupied by 2 workers everyday on a rotational basis whose responsibility is to cook for everyone while the rest are working on the plantation.

After lunch, workers get to work in grading, peeling, chopping and cleaning the harvest ready for the dryer which is used for drying the kava. The big lateral roots are called number 1 waka, the smaller lateral roots are called number 2 waka, sometimes the basel stems are peeled to be called white lawena, sometimes they are not peeled and are referred to as black lawena. The part which is above the basel stem till the kasa cutting is referred to as cut piece. The leftover tiny root pieces which are scraped up are referred to as “Bomb”. All these parts are sold at different prices and in our farmers case to different customers. We buy only the number 1 waka which is the cream of the harvest and the most expensive! The cheapest part is the cut piece in which he mixes the white lawena peelings usually. Our Savusavu farmer reuses all the kasa cuttings to expand his farm but in other farms where land is limited, the farmers tend to sell the dried kasa cuttings too. This is referred to as “Black kasa”. If these kasa cuttings are peeled, they are referred to as “white kasa”. Even the peelings are sold off to some buyers and these are referred to as “Civicivi”.

 Our farmer uses firewood from trees which were fell to make way for kava planting. These trees are littered around the plantation to be dried for a few months before it is cut up and taken back to the farmhouse dryer to use as a fuel source. Fire drying is necessary for commercial scale farming in savusavu or it will delay harvest times and be a problem when it rains. It rains quite a lot in Savusavu which is one of the major reasons why our farmer uses a fire dryer. Some of you may have noticed the smoky smell which comes from our Gourmet Savusavu Waka. That is because of the fire drying. Below is a picture of kava harvest being processed for the fire dryer. The processing area gets quite dirty because of the soil being washed off the kava. However, there is still dirt left on the kava which we wash off at our processing facility in Nadi using pressure washers. Most exporters in Fiji don’t wash the kava and process it into powder as is. That’s why you often find some Fijian kavas tasting nasty. The taste is made worse from dirt, mildew and wet/rotting kavas.

Below is a picture of the dryer from far. You can notice smoke emanating from the dryer. Our farmer and I had a discussion about this and we have bought him some exhaust fans to use on a chimney he plans to build to remove smoke from the burning chamber. He still is working on getting that set up.

Below is a picture of the sketchy bridge which needs to be crossed to get to the farmhouse. Its broken ¾ of the way and is held together by cables. The stream which flows by the farm house is a source of renewable energy and on my visit I recommended them that the flow of the stream which is greater towards another end can be used to generate electricity to power up the farmhouse. We are still working on finding a solution to this as the stream floods under heavy rain.

Once the kava has been set in the dryer, it’s a waiting game. It takes about 10 hours for the kava to sufficiently dry before it’s taken out from the dryer and placed out in the sun to remove most of the smoky smell. A worker tends to the dryer from time to time throughout the night to see if it has enough firewood. The kava is prepped by 6pm ready for the fire dryer and placed in it overnight for drying. By 4am it is removed from the dryer and laid out to sun for the next morning for a few hours. After this the kava is put into the bulk all laid out. It is bagged the following morning when the kava has absorbed some moisture back. This is done to preserve the roots from breaking up during bagging. In Fiji, the roots are the premium product of the kava plant and are typically laid out on table tops in the market for display. Fully intact roots are more appealing to buyers and attract more value than broken up roots. Below is a picture of how kava roots are displayed in the market.

Dinner for the workers is always a heavy one. The farmhouse has a chicken coup which feeds the workers in terms of providing eggs and chicken meat. All meals for workers are provided by our farmer. The plantation location is very remote. It takes about 45 minutes to get to the farm from Savusavu Town. The plantation is truly remarkable. In the 15 minute drive towards the end of the farm from the beginning you will see kava planted on both sides of the road extending up to the hills with a depth of maybe 500 - 600m. It is indeed the largest kava plantation in Fiji and we are glad to be one of the very few selected customers of our Savusavu farmer.

I hope this has been an interesting read and you have gained more knowledge about how kava is commercially farmed in Fiji.  

Why don’t I feel effects of kava? What am I doing wrong? An article for the novice

As a person who is new to kava you may be wondering why kava isn’t working for you? How is it that your friends are giving all praises for kava while you don’t feel anything? It is not that kava doesn’t work or there maybe something wrong with you. In this article we will provide you an array of things to consider which will help you pin-point what might be stopping you from feeling the effects of kava.

We have arranged these factors into two categories. The first is the internal factors you must consider and the other is the external factors which may be at play.

Internal Factors

  • Experiencing reverse tolerance

You may have heard of this term a number of times from your kava drinking buddies when you told them about your situation. This reverse tolerance phenomenon does occur with kava and it could be something you may be facing which is why you don’t feel the effects of kava YET. It doesn’t happen with everyone but you maybe a special case like few others. The important thing to note here is that you need to continue with using kava to have your important “breakthrough”. For more information about reverse tolerance read our article Kava & Reverse Tolerance after this.

  •  Not drinking kava on an empty stomach

One cannot stress the importance of drinking kava on an empty stomach. You need to fast for at least 2 hours before drinking kava. The reason behind this is that kavalactones get more easily absorbed by the body on an empty stomach rather than one which is full with food. There is no scientific explanation for this but that’s a conclusion which can be drawn out from general observation. Even veterans don’t feel the full effects when drinking kava with a full stomach.

  • Not preparing the kava correctly

The main goal in kava preparation is to ensure that all the soft particles of the kava powder are loosened from the hard particles (makas) and kneaded through the strainer which you use. It takes time and plenty of effort to do this and there is no easy way to prepare unless if you purchase micronized or instant kava. You can use a blender to blend the powder in water to shorten the kneading process but be sure to blend in short bursts to avoid heating the kava. Heating the kava will make the liquid gelatinous and impossible to strain or drink.

  • Discarding the most important part of the kava drink

The sediment that settles to the bottom of the bowl during preparation is what contains up to 70% of the effects which you would experience from kava. It is very important to drink that sediment. The sediment is very quick to settle to the bottom of the bowl so ensure that you mix the liquid thoroughly before drinking the kava and not to throw away that sediment. You should also drink the kava half cup at a time (120mL) and space out each drink at least 8 to 10 minutes apart and no more than that. If you get nauseous from drinking so quickly or drinking the sediment then suck on a hard candy in between drinking the kava. This will help alleviate the nausea.

  • Eating right after drinking kava.

Usually you begin to experience the heady effects of kava after 20 to 30 minutes of your first drink. It begins very subtle then peaks and phases out within an hour at most. Do not eat anything for at least an hour after your last kava drink. The heavy/relaxation effect of kava usually stays even after eating but the heady effects will stop once you have a meal.

  • Not using enough kava

Everyone is different and for that reason some people may require up to 2 tablespoons of kava to feel its effects and some may require up to 12 tablespoons. Just as some people are more sensitive and some are less sensitive to things they put into their bodies, it is no different for herbal supplements. You should know that there is no overdosing risk in kava. The worse that can happen with drinking too much kava is nausea and losing body coordination, both of which are temporary. It’s nothing substantial to warrant a visit to the hospital. Feel free to experiment with dosage to see where you stand. It could be that your body requires 8 tablespoons of kava in the beginning and later on require less as your body gets attuned on what to expect from a kava session. Keep experimenting with the kava doses if you don’t feel anything.


External Factors

  • Purchasing low quality kava

Often time’s people who are new to kava are unable to determine which kava they should purchase from which vendor. It’s not always the case that the most expensive kavas are of higher quality and not often that the cheapest of kavas are the best bang for your buck. However, do not make the mistake of going for a cheaper priced kava during the initial stages of experimenting. Cheaper kavas are notoriously known for being a hit or miss in effects so it maybe that the kava itself just doesn’t work rather than it specifically not work for you. It’s better to buy from a well-reviewed vendor in the initial stage of trying kava. If you have bought kava from a vendor and it didn’t work, try from other vendors to see how their products compare. This is because even kava which you and your friend bought from the same vendor can have varying batches and this will be a problem in determining why you aren’t feeling any effects. Also remember that it’s not always the most popular vendors that have the best products. Often time’s people buy from the first vendor they find through Google and it could turn out to be a vendor who has been around for many years but is selling low quality kavas. Always go for well-reviewed kava vendors rather than the more popular ones. Always check online reviews of vendors before purchasing their products.

  • Taking other medications with kava

When trying out kava always keep in mind that there is a possibility that you might not be able to experience the effects of kava due to other medications. Kava needs to be taken on its own without any other medications interfering with your senses. It is very subtle compared to other herbal medications but quite powerful on its own. Ensure that you have a clean system when you try kava to be able to sense its effects more acutely.


These are just some of the factors we hope you might look into to help uncover why you are not feeling the effects of kava. If we may have missed something important please feel free to contribute in form of a comment.




What is the Right Kava Dosage for You?

Researching about kava online is pretty easy. You can find out what kava is, how kava can benefit you, where kava is sold and how to prepare kava for consumption. One of the harder questions to find answers to is how to determine the right kava dosage for you. This is a personalized and complicated question to which there is no standard answer available online. Of course your kava vendor will probably provide you with dosage suggestion on the label of the packaging your kava comes in (Supplement Facts), but in reality, you need to experiment with kava to determine what dosage works for you. The right kava dosage depends on 3 core variables which you should know about being new to kava. In this post, we will talk in detail about those 3 variables to help you figure out your right kava dosage.

This post is primarily for people who are starting their kava journey, but it can be useful for experienced kava consumers as well, especially those who take kava medicinally. Since kava prices are soaring due to shortage of supply and increase in demand, it is vital to get the most out of the kava you purchase. On one hand, you could focus on maximizing extraction of the kavalactones from the kava you purchase while on the other, you could focus on attaining the right dosage of kava for anxiety relief or other medicinal uses to minimize kava wastage (using too much kava)

Before we delve further into this topic, one should note that the United States Food and Drug Administration has not approved kava for the treatment of any ailment. However, people still use kava as an aphrodisiac, a cognitive aid, to combat feelings of restlessness and irritability, and for symptoms of alcohol or benzodiazepine withdrawal. Since the FDA has not approved kava for the treatment of any ailment, no regulated standard dosing guideline exists. This means vendors are free to suggest any dosage they deem appropriate.

Clinical trials so far have substantially proven that kava is natural herb which is reliable and effective for the treatment of anxiety and other cognitive issues. You can check out all research done so far HERE. In most of these trials, the subjects were given between 300mg to 400mg kavalactones on a daily basis. The dosage was divided into 3 doses within a 24 hour span which means you need approximately between 100mg to 135mg kavalactones for each dose to get anxiety relief from kava. This range should be considered as a good starting point for dosing kava.

Now that you know the base dose to begin experimenting from, let’s get to the 3 core factors you need to consider when you are experimenting with the kava to determine the right dosage for you.

1) Reverse Tolerance

If you are new to kava, this is one of the very first problems you could face when trying to figure out the right kava dosage. Reverse tolerance doesn’t happen with everyone. But if you have bought kava from a revered vendor and it hasn’t been working for you, chances are that you are experiencing reverse tolerance. Most people seem to give up at this stage thinking that kava doesn’t work for them. You must understand that reverse tolerance is a real thing ( Yes, it is possible for you to be going through it) and it will take time for you to get past it whether it takes a few days or a few weeks. You could need to go through a few shells to a few pounds of kava powder to get through reverse tolerance. But trust us, your patience will be rewarded and will probably change your life for the better. If you don’t think so, read our post "How Kava Supplement has Saved 4 Lives" to see the power of kava.

2) Your Need for Kava

The right dosage depends why you are using kava. In some instances you may require more kavalactones in your system for pain relief or bodily effects as compared to anxiety relief. The effectiveness of kava is also determined by your body type and height. Usually taller and heavier people require more amounts of kavalactones (kava’s active ingredient) to experience desirable effects while shorter and lighter people require much less amounts. Your body’s sensitivity to substances is also something worth considering when finding the right dosage. Some people are overly sensitive to kava while some just need more kavalactones in their system to feel the effects.

3) The Kava Itself

Kava comes in different forms such as pills, powder, extracts and has different kavalactone concentrations. We recommend purchasing kava in natural powder form and avoiding extracts and pills. Each kava cultivar also has a unique set of beneficial effects. Generally the effects of different cultivars can be summarised as calming, pain relieving, sleep inducing, mood elevating and increasing sociability. All kavas provide general anxiety relief for all 5 major types of anxiety but you will find that some cultivars work better for a particular type of anxiety than others. For example, cultivars with mood elevating and increasing sociability effects works better for Social Anxiety than other kavas in general.  A good way to determine which kava suitable for you would be to go through reviews of the particular kava cultivar to see how it affected others. A good collection of reviews can be found HERE. You should note that retailed kavas generally differ from batch to batch so it’s wise to look at more recent reviews than older ones. The reviews would paint a fair idea of what a particular type of kava is best for.

After experimenting to find out which cultivar suits your need, you will need to determine exactly how many mg of kavalactones needs to be in your system to get desired effects. This can be calculated using the simple formula below after noting the amount of kava powder used.

  • For Traditional Grind Kava
  Kavalactone Calc for TG
  • For Micronized or Instant Kava
Kavalactone Calc for Micro & Instant

Once you know how many grams of kavalactones you need, you can use the formula below to determine how many grams of powder you will have to use for each dose.

  • For Traditional Grind Kava
  Powder Dosage Calc for TG
  • For Micronized or Instant Kava
Powder to use Calc for Micro & Instant

You may be wondering where in the article it tells how much water (or other liquids) to use. This is totally up to you. Even if you water down the kava, you will still be consuming the same amount of kavalactones. Bear in mind though that the lesser liquid you use in preparing traditional kava powder, the lower will be its extraction efficiency factor. 0.2 is a factor which we determined from experience.

These formulas may seem complicated but it is fairly straightforward. If you want to use kava as a medicine, the above formulas will be very helpful in maximizing your kava usage and determining the right amount of powder to use for desired effects. We recommend sticking to the 3 forms of kava specified in the post and avoid pills, tinctures or extracts which are usually considered ineffective because of quality issues.

We must say that while getting the right dosage is beneficial, you should know that there is nothing wrong with consuming too much kava. It is completely safe (non-lethal) unlike other substances out there. But there is a chance you may experience nausea and feel drunk (groggy) from the kava if taking excessively during a short period. That is why it is not recommended to drive or operate heavy machinery after consuming too much kava. A good sleep after consuming too much kava will solve everything, so you don’t need to worry about incurring hospital bills.

We hope that this article has shed some light about the infamous kava dosage question and that you find the right kava dosage for you. Bula!

Everything you need to know about Micronized Kava.

Micronized kava seems to be a very ambiguous topic when it comes to kava because there isn’t much information available online about it. A person who is looking to start his or her kava journey usually first attempts to get kava that is relatively easy to prepare with very little steps and is the least expensive. The notion of buying medium grind kava, a strainer, properly dosing, kneading and straining seems overly complicated to someone who's just looking to experiment with kava to see if it really works. Micronized kava and Instant kava are two of the most common grades of kava which comes to mind to offer to the novice with micronized being the least expensive and ideal choice. So what exactly is micronized kava? Even a veteran kava drinker will not be able to answer all the questions about micronized kava. Whats the difference between medium grind and micronized kava? Is micronized kava worth the price? Whats the impact of having the makas removed to produce micronized kava? Should i only get micronized kava from vendors who claim to remove the makas from kava prior to it being dried? Will consuming the makas cause any harm? How can I tell if a micronized kava i purchased contains makas? So many questions come to mind yet very little information is available about this topic. In this post, we attempt to answer as many of the important questions possible to provide you a central location to refer to if you are wondering what micronized kava is all about.

To begin answering this long list of questions we first need to understand what exactly is micronized kava and how did it originate. It is very difficult to pinpoint the exact origin of the coined term of micronized kava because there is no historical record available of how and when improvements have been made to kava processing techniques. We assume that the term originated in USA through a few pioneer kava vendors who sought to make the process of preparing kava easier for consumers but make it seem different to instant kava.

What is micronized kava?

To put it in simple terms, micronized kava is the equivalent of instant dried kava powder. It is kava powder which is so fine in particle size that you only need to mix it to your beverage of choice and its ready to drink. It does not require any process of kneading/ blending and straining like how it would for traditional/ medium grind kava powder.

What makes micronized kava different from traditional/ medium grind kava?

Analyzing the composition of the powders

To answer this we first need to understand what makes up medium grind kava. We know that medium grind kava contains 3 components which are visible to the naked eye apart from the active ingredient known as kavalactones.

  1. Makas (hard fibers usually lighter colored than the powder but in exceptionally light colored kava powders it can appear darker),
  2. Root flesh (soft plant material usually powdered)
  3. Root skin (dark/blackish particles which become more evident after preparation when looking at the strained leftovers).

    All three of these components contain kavalactones but the concentration differs in each component. It had been researched in the past that the skin of the kava plant contains the highest amount of kavalactones by weight. This would mean the skin of the roots have the highest kavalactones which is followed by the flesh and then the makas which contains the least (Based on our own findings).

    Micronized kava also contains 3 components similar to medium grind kava but the particle sizes are at micron levels (very small) which means it can be consumed directly without straining.

    Why is micronized kava more expensive than medium grind kava if it consists of the same components?

    Micronized kava can further be categorized depending on an additional step being taken before it is processed. Kava vendors normally retail one particular type of micronized kava dependent on their processing technique.

    There are 2 categories. Simple micronized kava and makas reduced micronized kava (often referred to as makas free micronized kava).

    1. Simple or often considered as the lowest grade of micronized kava is usually made by taking dried kava roots and processing it until it is so fine in size that it can be easily mixed into water and consumed. This grade is usually the cheapest in price and sometimes very close to the price of traditional/medium grind kava. This micronized grade produces a beverage like belowIf you zoom in onto the picture you will notice debris floating at the top of the beverage. Those are some of the makas component of the kava root. Makas is the hardest part of the kava plant and generally cannot be micronized under impact milling machinery. A commercial ball mill which works on the principles of friction is needed to reduce the particle size of the makas to an acceptable size for consuming. But the problem with using any friction principled mill is that it tends to heat and deteriorate the material being micronized which in the case is not ideal for kava as the active ingredients (kavalactones) start to reduce at the temperature of 60 degrees Celsius and higher.
    2. Makas reduced (makas free) micronized kava is considered as a higher grade of micronized kava and is usually more expensive to purchase. This is because before being processed to micronized kava, steps are taken to eliminate or reduce the amount of makas present in the kava. This results in a micronized kava which is slightly more potent than what its medium grind version would have been. It works on the principles of concentration by mass. For example,
      You have 100g of kava which has 11% kavalactones. This means 11 grams of kavalactones per 100g of kava. We know that makas has the least amount of kavalactones so let’s assume that there is 15g of makas in that same 100g of kava you have which contains 4% kavalactones. This amounts to 0.6 grams kavalactones per 15g makas. You removed the makas from the kava (100g – 15g) and replaced it with 15g of makas reduced kava which has 10.6% kavalactones. This amounts to 1.59grams kavalactones to 15g makas reduced kava. You now have a total of 100g of makas reduced kava with you. The kavalactone content of that 100g was reduced by 0.6 grams and replaced with 1.59 grams (11 - 0.4 +1.59) of kavalactones. This means you now are left with 12.19 grams of kavalactones per kg which means that the potency of kava has increased from 11% to 12.19% after reducing the makas in the kava. This is an increase of 10.81% in potency from medium grind kava or what would have been simple micronized kava to makas reduced micronized kava.
      There are currently only a handful of vendors who take this additional step before micronizing to refine their product and there are various techniques to remove the makas of the kava . The benefits of taking this additional step are:  
      • It improves the potency of the kava even if it’s only a slight improvement.
      • There’s less likelihood of the consumer to experience stomach discomfort with micronized kava
      • Less likelihood of experiencing nausea if stayed within dosage limits

      Before we begin with talking about how the makas is removed, let’s quickly do a fact check about makas.

      1. Kava makas contains less kavalactones.
      2. Makas is a very light weight substance. Its structure has tiny holes in it and is not as dense as the flesh of the kava which carries more lactones. It looks like really thin Linguine pasta. At best its weight relative to 100g of kava maybe just 10 - 15g but max 15%. Below is a picture of the cross section of kava roots. The star like shape is the makas in the kava which runs parallel with the root and increases or decreases in width according to the thickness of the individual root at the point of its length
      3. As earlier mentioned, It is possible to micronize makas but extremely difficult. The only equipment available to do so is based on the principles of friction which isn’t ideal for processing kava as too much heat is generated from it. You can use a kandap machine which will pin the makas against two metal plates and exert a lot of force, but that method is not efficient in micronizing all the makas.
      4. Makas gets tougher with the age of the kava plant. If you took dried thick root of a matured plant with same thickness as that of a young plant for comparison, you will require more force to snap the older kava plant root than you would for the younger kava plant root.

      How can the makas be removed?

      There are two methods through which the makas can be removed and it centres down to the stage at which the makas is being removed.  You can remove the makas from the kava when it is still green and you can remove the makas from the kava when it has been dried. Both of the methods have their distinct advantages and disadvantages which we will try to list down for better clarity.

      Removing makas when the kava roots is green (freshly harvested)

        This is the ideal stage to remove the most amount or possibly 100% of makas for a processor compared to when it has dried. At this stage, the roots are soft and malleable while the makas is tough but also malleable. A unique technique needs to be applied to remove the soft flesh of the kava root and discard the hard fibers (makas).


        • Highly efficient method of removing the makas (possibility of 100% of makas to be removed)
        • High yield of makas free kava if the makas is removed carefully with minimal wastage
        • Can be further processed to produce micronized powder which is very close to traditionally prepared kava.


        • Very labour intensive process. This increases processing costs.
        • Difficult to scale process to commercial level. There is no machinery available which can simplify or aid in the process of removing makas of different sized roots. It needs to be done manually. If a machine is used to smash the roots into pulp to remove the makas there is possibility of kava juice being lost in the process which decreases potency and increases wastage.
        • Not commercially viable as the procedure will be too expensive to recover costs against competitor micronized prices.

        To give an idea about how difficult a procedure this is, below is a picture of freshly harvested kava being cut into manageable pieces before being washed.  That is equivalent to 4kg of dried kava. Removing makas when the kava is green would require the processor to go through each root individually. It’s more practical to produce instant kava derived from green kava if this level of commitment is required rather than micronized kava since micronized kava is sold for a cheaper price than instant kava and will incur more expenses in producing.Removing Makas when the kava has dried

        This is not the ideal stage to be removing makas for the processor because the root becomes stiff and hard when dried making the process of separation harder. A unique technique needs to be applied which will basically separate the soft flesh (which easily turns into powder) and the makas (which is difficult to turn into fine powder) at this stage for removal to work.


        • Process can be mechanized. Commercial grade equipment are available assist with the process of separation
        • Less labour intensive. This means more economical in terms of cost.
        • Commercially viable procedure
        • Produces similar results (NOT SAME) to removing makas when the kava is green.


        • Impossible to remove 100% of the makas. This method is inefficient as during the separation process, some makas is bound to reach micron level and become impossible to separate.
        • Impossible to further refine the micronized kava in terms of particle size. It’s difficult to further reduce particle size after separation. Only friction based mills can further process but it isn’t ideal because of the heat generated in milling. Equipment is available but requires extreme levels of investment which isn’t practical unless scale of operations has a very high output.
        • Lower yield of makas reduced kava. A lot of wastage occurs because separation is done using particle size differences so there maybe high kavalactone particles stuck onto the makas which also gets separated from the fine powder.
        • Feels gritty in texture when the kava is made into a beverage. This is mostly due to the kava flesh particles being relatively larger in size and swelling up as it is rehydrated into any liquid.

         As you can tell by now, a lot of value addition is done in terms of processing the kava and further refining it to micronized level. This is the reason why you will find some micronized kava to be more expensive than buying traditional/medium grind kava or low grade micronized kavas. The meticulous procedure of producing a top of the shelf micronized kava is expensive and not as simple as it may seem.

        Who has the better quality micronized kava? A vendor who removes makas while it is green or when it has been dried?

        There are often claims made by vendors that removing makas when the kava is green may produce a better quality micronized kava because of the possibility of removing 100% of the makas. Too often you will hear people recommending this version of micronized kava over the other.

        To begin answering this question we first need to understand the mechanics behind preparation of medium grind kava. As the sole purpose of micronized kava being produced is to provide an instant version to dried kava powder (traditional/medium grind kava)

        Medium Grind Kava Preparation Mechanics.

        There are two common ways to prepare medium grind kava.

        1) Traditional Preparation - When you prepare kava using traditional method, you are kneading and straining the medium grind powder. The particles which are finer than your strainer micron rating emulsifies into the liquid easily while you knead and strain the large micron particles in an attempt to wash out the kavalactones and have it emulsified into the liquid as well. Since force is using during the kneading process you typically push through kava particles a few microns larger than the strainer you use because the kava particles gets soft and begin rehydrating when in contact with liquid.

        2) Using the Aluball - When using the Aluball, you are using the pressure generated in the water through shaking to sift out the medium grind kava. Only particles which are finer than the micron rating on the aluball get emulsified into the liquid used and to some extent you maybe extracting kavalactones from the bigger particles but not as efficiently as the traditional method because there is no significant pressure exerted on the kava particles. Remember that the only way to efficiently extract kavalactones from kava is by using an alcohol based solvent (which is declared to being harmful) or CO2 in an high pressure environment (which has not been declared as safe). Mere pressure exerted on kava using hand powered water pressure will not extract much of anything. 

        In both cases, it is important to note that you are attempting to extract the kavalactones by using pressure applied to the medium grind kava hoping to 'wash' it into the liquid you use. The efficiency of this is dependent on the right technique being used to extract the kavalactones by pressure but majority of the emulsion in the beverage you obtain from medium grind kava comes from very fine kava particles (makas, flesh and skin) which slide past the strainer.  This is why if you leave the kava for a long period, the particles settle to the bottom and has an appearance which can be best described as looking like "MUD". Most people don't have digestion problems with this "mud" in their kava because it’s very fine depending on how fine of a strainer was used and can be easily tolerated by your stomach. 

        This means that even when preparing and consuming traditional/ medium grind kava, you are in fact consuming all 3 components of the kava powder (makas, flesh and skin) which were finer than your strainer bag. Therefore, there is no significant difference to whether 100% of the makas was removed from the kava when it was green or 97% of makas had been removed when the kava was dried. The difference does not warrant any added advantage to either methods because ultimately you consume makas when preparing traditional/medium grind kava anyway. Neither of the two methods will give you stomach discomfort or nausea as supposed to the makas being left in simple/low grade micronized kava.

        How do I judge the quality of micronized kava?  

        This is where most people get it wrong. Quality is not based on the makas in micronized kava been removed 100% when the kava was green or 97% when the kava was dried. The difference is insignificant as both will yield similar results with increased potency and not cause stomach discomfort or nausea.

        Micronized kava has been produced in the past and to date to serve as an instant version to traditional/ medium grind kava. It is there to provide convenience to consumers who find the task of traditional preparation of kava daunting, tedious or time consuming. To judge the quality of micronized kava you need to assess it against what is has been designed for, that is, you need to see how close the beverage prepared from micronized kava comes to beverage prepared from prepared medium grind kava by traditional method. Below are the specific factors you need to look for:

        • Floating Makas - As a baseline to quality, the first thing you look for is floating makas in your beverage. As shown in the picture under “Why is micronized kava more expensive than medium grind kava if consists of the same components?” subheading, it will be quite easy to spot the makas in your beverage. That is essentially the lowest grade of micronized kava assuming its noble kava
        • The texture of the micronized kava beverage. You will very often find micronized powder looking very fine in dry form but once mixed into liquid it will look gritty and feel rough to your throat when drinking. You will experience more gag reflex to this type of micronized kava. The question you need to ask yourself is how close does the texture of the kava resemble to that of traditionally prepared kava? Of course it physically impossible to replicate the exact beverage you get from traditionally prepared kava in terms of texture. This is because achieving that level of micronization of particles will require you to use friction principled mills which will deteriorate the quality of the kava with heat. Essentially, the highest quality micronized kava will be the closest to texture of the kava you get from traditionally prepared medium grind kava. It would be bitter but won’t induce your gag reflex (feel like choking) unless if you have an overly sensitive reflex. To test this part you need to drink the micronized beverage like any other drink and not gulp it down.
        • The colour of the beverage through a clear glass. If you inspect the micronized kava beverage in a clear glass, you may see black particles floating inside the liquid which would be very obvious and if left for a while it will easily settle to the bottom. A good quality micronized kava will have these particles so small that it wouldn’t seem obvious to the naked eye unless if very closely inspected. These black particles are the skin of the kava roots.

        It is important to note that correct assessment of these factors is dependent on the ratio of micronized powder to liquid used in comparison. It is imperative that the same ratio of powder to liquid be used to test the above factors in micronized kavas in order for a proper comparison to be made. Do not go according to the serving size recommended by individual vendors. As a general rule, 5 grams of micronized powder should be tested in 240ml of water. If you do not have a gram scale then use a level filled measuring spoon for consistency.

        Is micronized kava worth buying?

        The answer to this question is yes but only if you are getting a top of the shelf micronized kava. Why?

        • A lot of time, effort, energy, love and care has been put in by vendors who produce micronized kava for their customers. This is more the case for vendors who produce top of the shelf micronized kava. You are buying a very refined and carefully produced product which is highly valuable
        • As explained earlier under the “Medium Grind Kava Preparation Mechanics” subheading, you are essentially consuming very fine root matter with both techniques of preparation more than you are extracting kavalactones. Water extraction of kavalactones is safe but quite inefficient. When comparing the amount of "MUD" you get in both forms of kava, you get more of the finer root powder for consumption with micronized kava by weight than what you get from traditional/medium grind kava. Your preparation technique may not be as efficient when attempting to extract maximum kavalactones, but your stomach will definitely be. Ultimately, the more kava plant matter you consume, the higher amount of kavalactones will be extracted by your stomach and absorbed into your body. This is the reason why many people find micronized kava to feel stronger than medium grind kava and why they feel micronized kava lasts longer than traditional/medium grind kava. NOTE: This does not mean that you should begin fully consuming medium grind kava. The large particles of makas will cause extreme stomach discomfort and possibly land you in a hospital.
        • It saves you time and energy. Something a lot of folks need after they start earning money. Like anything convenience comes with a price.
        • It is more affordable than instant kava. Instant kava has vastly improved texture than micronized kava and in some cases can seem more potent depending on the dehydration temperature used during processing.

         Thank you for taking out time to read through our post. We have tried to be as factual as possible and hope that this post has brought a lot of clarity on the topic of micronized kava for you. If you have any further questions feel free to comment below.

        How Kava Supplement has Saved 4 Lives

        Kava is increasingly getting a positive name in the global wellness community as a supplement that can bring a variety of health benefits. More positive mentions of kava in the first few weeks of 2017 have backed up strong interest in kava last year; all the indications are that the kava industry is on the upturn. There are so many articles about what has been researched and studied about kava. 

        In this blog post we bring a new perspective on kava as a supplement. We have compiled 4 insightful and inspiring stories on how kava has saved the lives of 4 individuals. This is an article you need to read if you are wondering whether kava supplements can help you.

        Online articles always talk about studies and research and are rarely relatable to readers. One such place to get relatable information is through online communities which share a common interest. If you didn't already know, there is a large community of kava consumers online who have a platform known as Kava Forums. This is a great platform to join if you are seeking to get answers to any question you may have about kava. There are a lot of welcoming, experienced, passionate and supportive members in the Forum who provide great words of wisdom. We are also part of this great online community and have collected some of the following relatable stories from the website to share with people who want to know if kava can really improve or save their lives.

        Bob's Struggle with Alcohol Addiction

        "Hopefully this helps anyone contemplating using kava as route to freedom from daily drinking. My story is simple and typical. I'm 48 now. Was never worse than a weekend warrior for many years. Something changed in my 30's and I became a daily drinker. Not the 1-2 beers a day drinker. A 3-4 beers + close half a fifth of bourbon per day drinker.

        I was functional. Always went to work. Rarely had a bad hangover. But was a slave to daily drinking. By 6pm my mouth was dry for the first drink. If I was working late or had to do something before I got home the craving would be front and center until I could get home and get relief. My father was an evening scotch drinker his entire adult life. Same kind of drinker as me. Everyday maintenance with roughly the same amount. I knew it was a problem for years because I couldn't go a day without drinking but I also knew my life wasn't spinning out of control so I could easily live with it.

        During a routine physical in May of 2015 I got the news that my liver enzymes were out of whack and had to get an ultrasound. I was pretty nervous to be honest. All those years of drinking coming to a head with health problems. Not the type of news anyone wants to hear. Thankfully it was "only" stage 1 mild fatty liver. I confessed my drinking to my doctor (of course I never mentioned it before) and the plan of action was to abstain for 3 months and retest. Quitting was pretty easy after the first week. It's not hard to be motivated when you get a warning shot that your liver can't handle your habits. I lost weight, ate right, exercised, and got a clean bill of health 3 months later.
        I swore I would never drink again. Then I thought I could drink moderately on occasion. Then I thought I could have 2 glasses of wine per day. Then I thought I could only drink bourbon on the weekends. The slippery slope of lying to myself and regressing right back to square 1. It happens so easily to countless people with drinking problems. For some of us there is no middle ground. We either drink or we don't. If we do drink we have to get a "fix" and not a taste. It's a progressive problem/disease. Once you cross a line you are never the same. I crossed the line about 12-15 years ago. It is what it is and I'm good with it.

        For those who haven't crossed the line...stay the hell away from it. If you see yourself fast approaching the point of no return then do everything in your power to stay away. If you quit because you think you have a problem and then start again but slip from moderation to excessive then you have all the evidence you need that you have progressed to point where alcohol controls you and not the other way around. If drinking in moderation brings you no pleasure and you always crave more but fight have crossed the line so stop fighting moderation and stop drinking.
        At least for me going cold turkey is pretty easy at first. Uncomfortable? Heck yea. Unmanageable? not really. After a week of fighting bad sleep and irritability things start feeling pretty normal with one exception. My 6-9pm "witching hour" is scribed into my mental code. Those cravings never left during my long sober stint in 2015. The cravings came and I pushed them aside. After 9pm or so I'm good to go. After my protracted 4 month relapse I took my last drink about a month ago. I realized I fell completely down the slippery slope and that is exactly where I swore I would never be again 15 months ago.

        I'm always honest with myself. I like "altered states". I’ve done plenty of stuff in my past which I thankfully grew completely out of over the years. But I couldn't shake alcohol. Could I live a completely sober life from all substances forever? Yea I probably could but again, being completely honest...I really don't want to. I like to unwind at the end of the day with something other than reality. A break from it all. I have 4 kids and a complicated job. Letting it all go at the end of the day feels good. No two ways around it.

        I researched kava last year during my sober spell. The liver scare articles turned me away. I already had a stressed liver. No sense adding to it. This time around I did more research and quickly realized I fell victim to half-truths and misinformation. It's hardly a surprise though. The reputation of what has been consumed for hundreds or thousands of years by millions of people with no known risk to the liver was tarnished by pharmaceutical and supplement companies in just a few short years. The strong message I saw after researching the second time was stick with noble and stick with traditional and don't worry about anything.

        I ordered various roots from trusted online vendors. My first package arrived Thursday last week. I had low expectations because of the reverse tolerance thing. Heh, I'm a lucky one. No RT for me. I downed 2 shells in 30 minutes and sat on the couch. Oh boy did that feel good. I chose heady to start and I felt it for sure. Nice waves of relaxation and slight euphoria with zero cravings to drink. It was 6pm and I was feeling great without drinking.

        The next 4 nights were a perfect repeat. I get the heady/heavy thing now. Heavy isn't good for pre-dinner for me but is works great as a night cap. I had a test on Sunday watching my NFL team. I drank 2 shells right before the game and felt fantastic. No beer cravings whatsoever. I'm still very early into my kava drinking experiment but the initial results are FAR better than I anticipated. I honestly believe I have personally found a perfect substitute for alcohol. It's even better in some important ways. A good dose lasts a long time and you aren't chasing the buzz like with drinking. Great sleep and easy waking are pretty nice too. We'll see how things go over the next month but I'm pretty encouraged right now.

        Does kava deliver an exact replacement for alcohol? Absolutely not. It's not nearly that strong. Does it deliver a feeling pleasurable enough to replace alcohol? For me, 100% yes. I don't need to get hammered. I just need a pleasurable altered state of mind to be satisfied. And I get that. My biggest problem with alcohol was a very high tolerance. 4 beers meant nothing to me. It took the bourbon on top to get the job done right.
        One thing I have contemplated is that it's probably best for a heavy drinker to get away from drinking for a week or 2 before trying Kava. Give your body a chance to adjust and heal a little without alcohol. Kava is subtle enough that it won't cure the acute heavy cravings that occur during the first week or 2. That may discourage some people. Also, getting through RT (Reverse Tolerance) could be a challenge. It would take time and patience. Someone who is fresh off of booze probably isn't going to have time or patience to work through an experiment. My best guess to be successful is to commit to not drinking first, give yourself some straight sober time, and then use kava to help keep you sober"

        Ilovekava23's solution to Benzo and Drug Addiction

        "I was a very bad off junky, heavily addicted to heroin, meth, and benzos (like xanax). I've been sober for 1 year now, but as someone who is only 23 years old I yearn for some fun every now and then and feel as if everyone around me my age still can go out and drink and have fun, if I drink I get drunk and end up blacking out and coming too with drugs in my system. Kava allowed me to be social, get out of my bubble, and have a great time with friends in the way that I'm guessing most people use alcohol to do.

        Kava is the only substance I have ever took that didn't make me want to run away from my problems and self medicate. Kava helps me so much with Social Anxiety Disorder, and General Anxiety Disorder. It helps me with my crippling depression, and has enhanced my life so, so very much. I never crave drugs anymore, if I'm in a bad mood or had a terrible day, I just have a cup of kava.

        My life has never been better and alot of it was from me working on myself, but kava has helped me so very much in keeping myself good and clean. I'm so glad to have found kava, as it holds a very dear place in my heart"

        Jeff's solution for Depression and Anxiety

        "For many years, my prescription to benzos was my life line, but I absolutely hated that overly drugged feeling they gave me. Even taking them while I was working or functioning day to day was panic inducing in and of itself because I knew I would more or less be checking out of reality for a few hours.

        Long story short, a buddy of mine was one of the many unfortunate souls who have become addicted to opiates. His addiction was due to a back injury and some PTSD from serving our country oversees in the desert. He and I were talking one night and he began telling me about finding kratom and how he was using it and how it helped ease and somewhat cure his addiction. He urged me to look into more holistic and natural plant medicines that could help with my depression and anxiety. I stumbled onto kava while doing research as a result.

        After a patient initial period while trying to break down my tolerance, I began to notice my overall anxiety levels begin to drop. As the weeks went by of nightly brewing and imbibing, I no longer felt that panic inducing need to have my benzos regularly available.
        I write you now, six months benzo and panic attack free, and over one year sober (from alcohol anyway). Since beginning a near daily kava regiment, my blood pressure has lowered to near "normal" levels, I'm much more calm day to day, and I no longer feel anxiety about not having my benzos rattling in my pocket at all times.

        I've tried many different types of kava from many cultivars and distribution companies and upon finding your Savusavu, well, it hit the mark perfectly. I love that even in less concentrated doses, it keeps me calm in nearly every situation that life throws at me. When I want to relax at night, a stronger dose let's me find that buzzed, yet "completely in control" feeling that I never had with alcohol or canibus...

        In many ways, kava has saved my life, and I am forever grateful to you and all the other purveyors of this wonderful, magical plant"

        Summer's Substitute to Klonopin

        "I was on klonopin for six years. At one point I was on 4-6 mg a day, and it took me one whole year of cutting a 2mg pill down. I knew I was in it for the long haul. Kava has helped me tremendously.

        I have found kava to take the edge off most times, and a handful of times I have reached a pretty good level similar to feeling like I was on a prescribed medication again. That was not necessarily my goal though; most of the time I just wanted the endless list of horrible feelings to go away or at least not be on the front burner in my life.

        It was the worst year and best year of my life. I am still struggling but it is totally 100% different for me now. I love my life and look forward to each new day. I know the hard times will pass. Kava was a game changer for me. I thank God for His plants, roots, and everything else with which He has blessed me. I use it almost every day now. It's 100% medicine to me! To think I am pill free! I still have to pinch myself. I am embracing each day" 

        We hope that by sharing these 4 stories we have motivated you to give kava supplements a chance if you are looking for a solution to the problems highlighted by these 4 inspiring individuals who have reformed their lives. Kava is a magical plant which has been used as a traditional medicine in the Pacific for years and it could be the solution you were looking for. If you are already consuming kava and have a story to tell please do email us or add in as a comment to this post.  

        Are Kava Pills Effective? Why Kava Root Powder is the Best Form of Kava

        We are currently seeing several new forms of kava emerging due to the surge in its demand worldwide. Kava pills, one of the oldest and more readily available forms, have been at the forefront for the US market. Amazon, Ebay, pharmacies and health stores all over US keep kava supplements in form of pills. But, are these pills really effective? Why do many people prefer kava root powder instead of kava pills?

        In order to answer these questions we need to understand what a recommended kava dosage is.

        Recommended Kava Dosage  

        According to Drugs.Com, the German Commission E recommends dosages of 60 to 120 mg kavalactone daily for no longer than 3 months without medical evaluation. Clinical studies have reported that kavalactone dosages between 60 to 240 mg/day are effective for anxiety relief. However, most kava dietary supplements available in pill form tell you to use about 300mg/ day. Isn’t that going overboard to recommendations? Well those pills are never 100% kavalactones. Usually it is a mono-extract of acetone from the dried roots of the plant and is standardized to 70% kavalactones which means you are being told to use about 210mg of kavalactones per day by the kava pill company. Regardless of what is being recommended by these dietary kava pill companies, have you ever actually heard people benefiting from these pills? Our guess is that it’s probably a hit and miss.

        What do we recommend as a dosage? Well, it depends. A lot of factors go into consideration when trying to figure out an effective and efficient dose for an individual. Factors for individuals are basically their height, weight and gender while factors related to the kava product you have are the kavalactones percentage, chemotype and form of the kava. Individual factors determine how much kavalactones your body needs to feel the kava effects while factors related to the kava determines how much of the product you need to use and how long it’s effects will last. Pills are convenient and easy to use but kava root powder requires proper preparation. For the powder, you really need to get your hands dirty and knead and squeeze the kava to maximize extraction of its active ingredient (kavalactones). We recommend preparing kava using the traditional method of kneading in a straining cloth so that enough pressure can be applied for extraction. It’s a messy job but worthwhile if you want to maximize the effects of the kava powder dose.

        Why is Kava Root Powder the Best Form of Kava?

        We recommend sticking to the old fashioned traditional method of drinking kava using kava root powder and avoiding kava pills, tinctures, extracts, vapors etc. You get more bang for your buck by consuming kava in its traditional form, by extracting the kavalactones from kneading a strainer filled with kava root powder submerged in luke warm water and gulping it down cup after cup.

        Let’s show you an example of why we suggest going for kava root powder instead of pills. This will require a bit of math and a kava powder to use as an example. Let’s use our famous Gourmet Savusavu Waka for this calculation. We know that the Savusavu is a traditional grind kava and has been tested to contain 11.3g of kavalactones per 100g of kava root powder. Putting things into perspective,

        • A tablespoon can hold average has 8 – 9 grams of kava powder in it
        • The Savusavu has 11.3% kavalactones in it
        • A good traditional extraction will net 8 – 9% of those lactones
        • This means that a tablespoon of our Savusavu kava root powder can net you a minimum of 640mg of kavalactones which is more than triple the kavalactones you get out of a standard kava pill dosage regardless of how much water is used.

        What does this all mean?

        Well firstly, it means that our Savusavu is quite strong! But that goes for most kava powders we stock. Secondly, the math supports our recommendation of consuming kava in traditional powder form using traditional preparation i.e. you get more bang for your buck. Kava Root Powder is the best form of kava which one can buy and is typically cheaper in comparison of kavalactones content to other forms of kava such as pills, extracts, tinctures etc. if you do the maths. That’s aside from being the safest form of kava if you are purchasing from the right kava vendor. Average users tend to use 2 tablespoons of kava in 300mL of luke warm water per session which is enough for 2 cups of kava.

        Now wait just a minute!

        • 2 tablespoons equals to 16 – 18g kava powder
        • 8 – 9% lactone extraction equals a minimum of 1.28g of kavalactones.

        But that’s over 10 times the recommended dosage by the German Commission E!?

        We know. The several factors we identified for recommended dosage vary by individuals, where some may only need 1 tablespoon of powder to feel the effects and others may need up to 8 or 9 tablespoons. Kava effects are subtle. Once you understand the effects it has on you, it may take as little as half a tablespoon to get to that point where you need to be, even if you began your dosages with 8 or 9 tablespoons a few weeks earlier. It’s important to note that in most clinical trials, subjects are attuned to understanding the effects of the kava on their body and the trials occur in a very controlled environment. Real world results for kava may differ quite a bit. Sedative effects of kava are quite obvious to feel but euphoric, anxiety relief and energizing effects are quite subtle and therefore much harder to feel.

         Ok but if I had to start with 8 or 9 tablespoons of kava to get its effects, isn’t it dangerous? Isn’t that overdosing?

        Kava Overdose

        The key thing to remember about kava is that there is no known overdose. Kava is not a type of drug which can harm you or your body in any way if taken excessively. That doesn’t mean that you should go about drinking as much kava as you can. You still can get sick from too much kava, just like how you can get sick from consuming too much of anything. We are just providing limits to consider when answering the question about safe kava dosage. Unlike other natural herbal products (such as Guarana in Red Bull) though, there is yet to be a single recorded case of death from kava overdose which speaks volume about how safe kava is. The worst you can get from drinking too much of kava is falling off to sleep, one of the reasons why many insomniacs drink kava. Kava does seem to impair mobility at high doses. Therefore, we strictly advise against driving/operating heavy machinery under the influence of kava.

        So are Kava Pills effective? Looking at the recommended dosage level for most pills, we think that pills are not effective. You may need to take in a significant amount of pills to feel the effects of the kava. Are Kava Pills efficient? Well if you are taking in so many pills to get the effects of kava, what’s the point in spending so much money on them? Go the traditional way like how we islanders in the South Pacific have done for over 3000 years ago. Buy kava powder and prepare it the traditional way and have a shell. Bula!